Health effects of leaf blowers and lawn vacuums

Leaf Magnets™ are the best leaf removal technology, and the healthiest. All alternatives (rakes, blowers, vacuums, sweepers, and lawn mowers) damage your health, appearance, mood, brainpower.

Surprised? So were we. We knew exhaust gas is toxic and noise is annoying, but beyond that, we didn't see any other problems except for a cough lingering for a few days after blowing or vacuuming—just allergies, we presumed.

The reality is more alarming. The inescapable problem with blowers is that they blow everything on lawns, not just leaves. Lawn vacuums also stir up plumes contaminating the user's eyes, nose, lungs, ears, and clothing. What's on leaves and grass is often toxic, and what is in soil always is: no area is safe, but some are worse than others (example). Even lawn sweepers and rakes create some dust and airborne debris, and thus also pose a risk to you.

Lawn sweeper generating dust Dust cloud from leaf blower

The references listed below substantiate our concerns. Most were generated by scientists, all of whom have nothing to sell, and hence no vested interest in persuading you that what is on lawns and in soil is indeed hazardous to users and their neighbors.

The irony is that people use leaf blowers and lawn vacuums to save time, but they may waste even more by triggering health problems and increasing the risk of premature death not only in the operator but others nearby because noise, exhaust, dust, and other hazards spread widely.

Minimizing future risks and focusing on immediate benefits is an example of temporal discounting. In the minds of most people, the apparent time savings from using leaf blowers instead of rakes is so alluring they opt for the blower even though it may send them to an early grave or unable to perform in the bedroom without pharmacological assistance—none happening today or anytime soon, so the generally small risk from any one usage is rounded down to zero. But just as one fast-food meal won't kill you but a steady diet of them very well may (the threshold effect, analogous to the straw that broke the camel's back), small but repeated risks can slowly add up to big problems. Leaf Magnets™ eliminate the need to trade current benefits for future risks because they outperform leaf blowers while not subjecting you to their health hazards.

Lists summarizing the health effects

Here's a summary listing problems caused or contributed to by leaf blowers, lawn vacuums, and mowers as well as sweepers and rakes to a lesser extent:

  • birth defects
  • premature birth
  • reduced height, academic performance, and motivation
  • asthma
  • cough
  • infections
  • hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • heart attacks, other heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases
  • type 2 diabetes
  • erectile dysfunction
  • obesity
  • eczema
  • psoriasis
  • acne
  • hearing loss
  • poor sleep
  • stress
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • irregular menstrual cycles
  • mood swings
  • compulsive behavior
  • hyperactivity
  • oppositional behavior (angry/irritable mood [easily loses temper, touchy, easily annoyed, resentful], argumentative/defiant behavior [abrasive, often deliberately annoys others or blames them for his or her mistakes or misbehavior], vindictiveness)
  • neurotoxicity
  • decreased learning ability
  • diminished IQ
  • increased propensity for violence
  • kidney disease
  • premature graying of hair
  • hair loss
  • cancer
  • accelerates inflammation and aging
  • premature death

One of these risks is Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite transmitted by contaminated soil. Interestingly, there are gender differences in its effects. They include:


  • lower intelligence
  • lower probability of achieving higher education
  • decreased novelty seeking
  • more distrustful
  • reduced superego (conscience) strength
  • more aggressive
  • more inclined to break rules
  • increased criminality (& likely more sociopathy in general)
  • more rigid
  • more emotionally reactive
  • less stable
  • more affected by feelings
  • more easily upset


  • feeling out of control or overwhelmed
  • less independent
  • more uninhibited
  • more rule-bound and conforming
  • more uptight
  • increased pregnancy weight gain
  • symptoms resembling premenstrual syndrome
  • unpleasant signs or symptoms of menopause (cognitive impairment, migraine, mood disorders, bouts of rapid heartbeats, dizziness, low back pain, breast pain, abdominal pain, digestive problems, electric shock sensations)

Males and females

Leaves decay primarily via decomposition by mold, with various fungal species predominating at different times; this diversity heightens the chance of leaves inducing an allergic response in any one person. Arrows in the pictures below highlight mold spots on leaves in early spring after they were covered by snow during a northern Michigan winter. Fungal decay slowly proceeds until leaf decomposition is complete.

leaf mold closeup of mold on leaves

Some of the hazardous substances in soil, grass, and leaves

  • mold and bacteria (which can harm you and plants, with leaf blowers potentially spreading them from one infected plant to many others); see pictures above
  • roundworms (nematodes)
  • animal urine and feces, such as from cats, dogs, deer, birds, raccoons, rats, and mice, some of which can transmit infections, such as hantavirus, which is potentially fatal; the CDC recommends wearing a N95-rated respirator when cleaning up raccoon feces, a process that typically generates markedly less airborne emissions than blowing
  • decaying bodies of dead insects and animals, such as worms, birds, and snakes
  • pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals
  • allergens such as plant pollen
  • dust resulting from tire wear
  • brake-lining dust, which may contain asbestos, which also occurs naturally in some soil
  • dirt (which inevitably includes metals and frequently is contaminated by heavy metals such as lead that can cause a variety of physical and cognitive effects, including impaired intelligence. Another heavy metal, cadmium, is present in soil and phosphorous fertilizers; it can cause a variety of physical effects, including cancer, kidney disease, and hair loss. Importantly, lungs absorb cadmium more readily than the gastrointestinal tract, so cadmium inhalation is especially toxic. Cadmium has a long biological half-life of 17 – 30 years, so once in the body, it takes decades to excrete half of it, therefore even tiny doses progressively accumulate. Inhaling metals, whether as dust or fumes, is often substantially more toxic than ingesting the same amount. For example, manganese is an essential trace mineral we need in our diets. Ingested in tiny amounts, it is good for us, but when chronically inhaled, it is neurotoxic because it can pass directly into the brain via olfactory pathways. Researchers found that higher manganese levels in children correlate with lower IQ scores. Manganese is present in some fertilizers [example], so by applying it to lawns, some inevitably ends up in soil and hence people using leaf blowers and others downwind of them.)
  • particulate matter from engine exhaust and dirt
  • volcanic ash
  • glass (can be naturally formed from the heat of asteroid impacts)
  • erionite and other fibrous zeolites
  • other mineral dusts

Most people don't know about research documenting these effects, thus they never put two and two together, so if their children do not get into medical school or otherwise fail to achieve their career dreams, or if they develop health or behavioral problems, almost never is the leaf blower identified as the culprit or contributing factor.

Reference list

Skip to Toxoplasma references

  1. Leaf blowers fatal to declining insects, Germans warned
  2. Study uncovers link between air pollution and intellectual disabilities in children
  3. Dirty air now could harm hearts of offspring later: Study in mice first to suggest pollution's dangers can be passed on
  4. Air pollution linked to autism: study
  5. Report reveals link between air pollution and increased risk for miscarriage
  6. New UK research links even low levels of air pollution with serious changes in the heart
  7. Air pollution leads to cardiovascular diseases
  8. Air pollution and noise increase risk for heart attacks
  9. Air pollution reduces global life expectancy by more than one year, study finds
  10. Air pollution contributes significantly to diabetes globally: Even low pollution levels can pose health risk
  11. A mountain of evidence on air pollution's harms to children
  12. Increased air pollution linked to bad teenage behavior: Tiny, toxic particles creep into developing brains, cause inflammation and may damage brain pathways responsible for emotion and decisions, researcher finds based on Longitudinal Analysis of Particulate Air Pollutants and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior in Southern California
    Comment: The culprit? Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5). One source: engine exhaust. Researchers at USC's Environmental Health Sciences Center found that air pollution increases obesity, teenage aggressiveness, and nearly doubled the risk for dementia in older women.
  13. Polluted Morality: Air Pollution Predicts Criminal Activity and Unethical Behavior
  14. Evidence mounts for Alzheimer's, suicide risks among youth in polluted cities
    Comment: City air is significantly cleaner than air inhaled by people using gasoline-powered leaf blowers.
  15. In China, a link between happiness and air quality: Moods expressed on social media tend to decline when air pollution gets worse, study finds
  16. California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board: A Report To The California Legislature On The Potential Health And Environmental Impacts Of Leaf Blowers
  17. Leaf litter in street sweepings: investigation into collection and treatment
    Comment: In addition to being contaminated by potentially toxic chemicals such as lead, arsenic, and chromium, street leaf sweepings were found to contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, some of which are genotoxic carcinogens) that may originate from vehicle exhaust, tire wear, and other sources. Wind (natural and that resulting from vehicle motion) spreads leaves, so ones contaminated by being in or adjacent to streets can move to other areas, including your lawn.
  18. Traffic-related air pollution linked to DNA damage in children
    Comment: This translates into more health problems and shorter lives, but it's not just from automobiles; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants are produced by motor vehicles but the exhaust of small engines—such as those used in leaf blowers and lawn vacuums—is considerably more toxic, as documented by other references below. The irony is that in using them to save time, people risk cutting years or even decades off their lives. Not everyone succumbs to premature death, but it is impossible to escape all consequences of small-engine exhaust, such as premature signs of aging, some of which are mentioned below.
  19. Brief exposure to tiny air pollution particles triggers childhood lung infections
  20. Exposure to inorganic dust increases risk of gout in women by 27%
    Comment: Dirt also contains inorganic dust (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
  21. Up to 38 percent of all annual childhood asthma cases in Bradford may be caused by air pollution
    Comment: The research also revealed that up to 24% of the total number of asthma cases could be caused by traffic-related air pollution. As documented below, vehicle exhaust is considerably less toxic than that from small engines, such as leaf blowers and lawn vacuums. Furthermore, people using such devices are exposed to a much higher concentration of pollutants than waft in from a distance from vehicles.
  22. Traffic-related pollution linked to risk of asthma in children
  23. Air pollution may be linked to heightened mouth cancer risk: High levels of fine particulate matter and to lesser extent, ozone, may be key
  24. Particulate air pollution linked with reduced sperm production in mice
  25. Some chemicals in smoke may be even more dangerous than previously thought
  26. Increased air pollution cuts victims' lifespan by a decade, costing billions
  27. Study of US seniors strengthens link between air pollution and premature death
  28. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults
  29. Prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to genetic changes in rat brains, study finds: Cedars-Sinai Research provides insight into potential health effects of dirty air in the Los Angeles basin
  30. Air Pollution Increases Obesity-Related Hormone: Study
  31. Air pollution may affect levels of obesity-related hormone
  32. Air pollution is associated with cancer mortality beyond lung cancer: A large scale epidemiological study associates some air pollutants with kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer death
  33. Why polluted air may be a threat to your kidneys
  34. Air pollution may shorten telomeres in newborns -- a sign of increased health risks
    Comment: Shortened telomere length is linked with cognitive decline, heart disease, cancer, aging, and premature death.
  35. Pollution responsible for 16 percent of deaths globally -- Lancet Commission report
  36. Air pollution exposure on home-to-school routes reduces the growth of working memory
  37. Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles
    Comment: Nitrogen dioxide is also present in small-engine exhaust, such as from leaf blowers and lawn vacuums.
  38. National Emissions from Lawn and Garden Equipment by Robert McConnell (Environmental Engineer with the US Environmental Protection Agency) and Jamie Banks, PhD, MS (environmentalist, healthcare scientist, and Executive Director of, an exemplary non-profit organization superbly educating people about the health hazards of leaf blowers)
  39. Can clean air make you happy? Examining the effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on life satisfaction
    Comment: Researchers found a significant inverse correlation between mean annual ambient NO2 and life satisfaction, with effects comparable to many 'big hitting' life events.
  40. Air pollution can make you feel as poorly as a partner dying, study finds
  41. Polluted air may pollute our morality
  42. Pollution can lead to brain damage and depression warn scientists: Long term exposure to air pollution could damage the brain and lead to learning and memory problems and even depression, new research has revealed.
  43. Air Pollution Linked to Cognitive Decline in Later Years
  44. How toxic air clouds mental health
  45. Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution Linked to Impulsivity, Emotional Problems in Children
  46. Air pollution may disrupt sleep
  47. Sleep loss affects your waistline
  48. How air pollution is linked to type 2 diabetes
  49. Cleaner air, longer lives
  50. Air pollution linked to irregular menstrual cycles
  51. In-womb air pollution exposure associated with higher blood pressure in childhood
  52. Environmental factors may trigger lupus onset and progression
    Comment: Environmental triggers include air pollution particulates.
  53. October 6, 2022: Widespread pipe repair technique sends nanoplastics into the atmosphere, new study finds
    Excerpt: “The tiny bits of plastic that wear off bottles, plastic bags, automotive parts and even cosmetics … also get into the air, where they can damage lungs much more effectively. But for that to happen, they have to be worn away by water or earth and then be launched into the sky by winds.”
    Comment: Or leaf blowers.
  54. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, a Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure: the Meta-Analytical Evidence
  55. Dogs born in the summertime more likely to suffer heart disease: Penn study supports earlier findings in humans pointing to the role of early gestational exposure to fine air particulates and increased risk of heart disease later in life
    Comment: For those born in July, a 74% higher risk!
  56. In utero exposure to carbon monoxide increases infants' risk of poor lung function
    Comment: Engine exhaust contains carbon monoxide.
  57. 'Tornado cough' threatening families in devastated areas and Insulation and plastic spread by tornadoes may not mix well with livestock
    Comment: Tornadoes that rip apart homes and other buildings widely spread their fiberglass insulation, pulverized drywall, asbestos (in older buildings), and other things you don't want in your eyes, nose, or lungs. However, the risk doesn't end after the tornado passes because such materials land on the ground, eventually mixing into the dirt, and can be subsequently stirred up by lawn vacuums or sweepers and especially leaf blowers. The dirt they put into the air kicks up everything in it. This problem can affect you even if tornadoes have never damaged your area because smaller amounts of fiberglass are added to soil during construction and some renovation or restoration projects.
  58. A study links soil metals with cancer mortality
    Comment: Researchers found associations between various types of cancer and soil metals, including lead → esophageal cancer, copper → lung cancer, arsenic → brain tumors, cadmium → bladder cancer; (cadmium, lead, zinc, manganese, and copper) → digestive system cancers. Leaf blowers are the single most effective way of stirring soil into the air, with everything on and in it—including metals—given pipelines to enter the body, such as via inhalation. Lawn vacuums and mowers pose a similar risk but generally create less airborne dust.
  59. Airborne dust threatens human health in Southwest
    Comment: Dry conditions in the Southwest make dust more of a problem there, but most other areas have dry spells during which leaf blowers and lawn vacuums can stir up substantial amounts of dust that endanger health. Lesser but still harmful amounts of dust are generated by leaf blowers at other times, including wet weather.
  60. Noise throws the heart out of rhythm
  61. Traffic noise may make birds age faster
    Comment: Noise in general is a stressor.
  62. Recent advances in research on non-auditory effects of community noise
  63. Noise exposure and public health
  64. Burden of disease from environmental noise - Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe
  65. Transportation noise increases risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes
    Comment: Leaf blower noise is even more irritating.
  66. Leaf blowers can ruin the neighborhood
    Comment: Those making noise are less bothered by it than others hearing it.
  67. Blowback: The great suburban leaf war
    Comment: Some of the many take-home messages in this superb article:
    • Dr. David Lighthall said respirable road dust stirred up by leaf blowers can remain airborne for days.
    • The California Air Resources Board said fine airborne particles cause 9000 premature deaths per year in California—that's like three 9/11s per year.
    • After the head of a gardening crew spent eight minutes blowing, he accumulated a debris pile weighing about 12 ounces. This illustrates leaf blower inefficiency.
    • Peter Kendall complained that salad greens from his organic garden are covered with dust stirred up by leaf blowers, wisely realizing that dirt contains several toxic substances. He and his wife Susan created a website (Quiet Orinda) advocating for a city ban on blowers and posted a video presenting some of their hazards.
    • Attacking leaf blowers incited some of their proponents to inflict ad hominem attacks upon the Kendalls. People resort to ad hominem attacks when they cannot substantively rebut points made by their ideological opponents, substituting personal attacks on them in place of a debate of the issues.
    • Orindans often worry they may lose gardeners by discussing leaf blower issues with them. As a former lawn maintenance contractor, I would have loved it if customers voiced problems and presented new solutions helping them and me. Leaf Magnets™ do exactly that.
  68. Analyzing roadside dust to identify potential health concerns: Findings from studies of traffic-related abrasion particles point to tires, brake pads, and road materials as significant sources of environmental pollution with potential health implications
  69. Pollution warning over car tyre and brake dust (tyre = British spelling of tire)
  70. Brake dust air pollution may have same harmful effects on immune cells as diesel exhaust
  71. On Banning Leaf Blowers
  72. My rake is faster than your leaf blower
    Comment: Because blowers are so slow, their operators are exposed to exhaust, dust, and toxic substances in it for longer periods than they would with the efficient Leaf Magnet™ method. With it, one pass and that area is done, as opposed to leaf blowers in which areas often must be blown again as wind or the leaf blower blows leaves onto that spot again … and again. Because the airstream from blowers fans out, leaves will inevitably be blown onto previously cleared areas. The only way to minimize that is counterintuitive and awkward, making leaf blowers even more annoying to use.
  73. The Leaf Blower, Capitalism, and the Atomization of Everyday Life
  74. Sound & Fury
    Comment: According to the article, landscapers claim they must work up to 50% longer with a rake and broom instead of a leaf blower.
  75. Blow Hard Blues: Most local efforts to ban leaf blowers have fallen on deaf ears
  76. U.S. Geological Survey: You're Standing on It! Health Risks of Coal-Tar Pavement Sealcoat
    Comment: Living adjacent to coal-tar-sealcoated pavement substantially increases cancer risk; most of which stems from ingestion or inhalation of soil, since inhaled material is often swallowed. Sealcoatings easily abrade from driveways and parking lots, contaminating those surfaces and adjacent dirt with toxic particles leaf blowers can spread widely.
  77. Noisy, but that’s not all: the health threat posed by leaf blowers
  78. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management
    Comment: PAHs = Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  79. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
    Comment: Adults exposed to PAHs have a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease. Exposed animals show increased atherogenesis, which elevates the risk of heart disease, stroke, erectile dysfunction, and other problems.
  80. Is Your Driveway Toxic?
  81. Studies: Health risk from toxic pavement sealant greater than previously believed
  82. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States
  83. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement
  84. Toxicity of azaarenes
  85. Oral exposure to commercially available coal tar‐based pavement sealcoat induces murine genetic damage and mutations
  86. Counting genetic mutations predicts how soon you'll get cancer
    Comment: A mutation here, a mutation there: as they add up, your chance of living goes down. Unfortunately, this is just one of the cancer risks stemming from leaf blowers and lawn sweepers. Wearing a suitable mask reduces the risk to their operators, but not others who breathe in dust generated by them.
  87. Studies Raise Questions about Pavement Sealers
  88. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line
  89. A Common Pavement Sealer May Lead to Unhealthy Homes
  90. They paved paradise, all right, and with a potent human carcinogen to boot
  91. Melting snow contains a toxic cocktail of pollutants: Air pollution from cars affected by freezing temperatures and snow
    Comment: After melting snow releases those toxic chemicals into soil and onto grass, leaf blowers and lawn vacuums spread them widely.
  92. Does air pollution play a role in infertility?: a systematic review
  93. Potential pathways of pesticide action on erectile function – A contributory factor in male infertility
  94. Environmental agents and erectile dysfunction: a study in a consulting population
  95. Impotence caused by pesticides
  96. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides: systematic review and implications for family doctors
  97. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment: Summary and Implications
  98. Pesticides and personality
  99. Pesticides and your health — a family physician's perspective
  100. Dread of roses: Neurobehavioral effects found in children exposed to flower pesticides
    Comment: Leaf blowers don't just stir up dust, leaves, and grass but everything contaminating them, including pesticides.
  101. 9-year-old boy dies months after being diagnosed with rare disease from mouse droppings
    Comment: The culprit? Hantavirus.
  102. You Breathe What They Blow: The negative effects of leaf blowers are shocking.
  103. Health hazards of leaf blowers
  104. Air district report: Leaf blowers present health risks
  105. Why You're the Worst Person In the World If You Use a Leaf Blower: Want to be a lousy neighbor? Have we got the device for you!
  106. Exposure to air pollution increases risk of obesity
  107. Air pollution cuts 3 years off lifespans in Northern China
    Comment: Air pollution affects everyone, everywhere. Some areas are worse, but none are without risk. Leaf blowers and lawn vacuums contribute to the problem.
  108. House dust spurs growth of fat cells in lab tests based on Characterization of Adipogenic Activity of House Dust Extracts and Semi-Volatile Indoor Contaminants in 3T3-L1 Cells
    Comment: Using leaf blowers and lawn vacuums when windows are open can quickly contaminate homes. Merely entering a home with dusty clothes is another source. Researchers found that measurable effects were produced by as little as 3 micrograms of dust.
  109. New study reveals Ulsan is exposed to yearlong toxic fine dust
  110. New hyper-local air pollution map unveiled
    Comment: We tend to think air pollution varies regionally, but nearby locations can have significantly different pollution levels.
  111. Air pollution a risk factor for diabetes, say researchers
  112. Air pollution increases risk of insulin resistance in children
  113. Air pollution linked to children's low academic achievement
  114. Air pollution linked to slower cognitive development in children
  115. Improving air quality in NYC would boost children's future earnings by increasing IQ
  116. Air pollution linked to depression and slow thinking
  117. Living near major traffic linked to higher risk of dementia
  118. Late effects of a perinatal exposure to a 16 PAH mixture: Increase of anxiety-related behaviours and decrease of regional brain metabolism in adult male rats
    Comment: Leaf blower and lawn vacuum engines inevitably produce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incomplete combustion. PAH exposure during early stages of brain development can cause anxiety in adults.
  119. Living near busy roads increases dementia risk, study finds
  120. Traffic exposure may increase risk of dementia, study finds
  121. THE POLLUTED BRAIN: Evidence builds that dirty air causes Alzheimer’s, dementia
  122. Bad air means bad news for seniors' brainpower
  123. Stroke from poor air quality
  124. Air pollution linked to blood vessel damage in healthy young adults
  125. Study shows how air pollution fosters heart disease
  126. 'Bad' air may impact 'good' cholesterol increasing heart disease risk
  127. Traffic-related air pollution associated with changes in right ventricular structure, function
  128. Heart disease patients advised to avoid being outside in rush hour traffic
  129. Air pollution linked to chronic heart disease
  130. High-pollution days linked to increased risk of cardiac arrest
  131. Poor air quality increases patients' risk of heart attack
  132. Air pollution and hardening of arteries
  133. Carotid artery stenosis: Air pollution connected with narrowing of the arteries
  134. Exposure to air pollution 30 years ago associated with increased risk of death
  135. Link between air pollution, increased deaths and increased deaths from heart disease affirmed
  136. Air pollution linked to irregular heartbeat, lung blood clots
  137. Air pollution may directly cause those year-round runny noses, according to a mouse study
  138. Short-term exposure to low levels of air pollution linked with premature death among US seniors
  139. Short-term exposure to air pollution at levels below current standards and risk of death
  140. Scientists discover mechanism for air pollution-induced liver disease
  141. Particulate matter from modern gasoline engines damages our lungs
  142. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia
  143. Air pollution linked to increased rates of kidney disease
  144. Air pollution causes millions of cases of kidney disease each year
  145. Breathing dirty air may harm kidneys based on Particulate Matter Air Pollution and the Risk of Incident CKD and Progression to ESRD
  146. Exposure to air pollution just before or after conception raises risk of birth defects
  147. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy linked with asthma risk
  148. Environmental pollution exposure during pregnancy increases asthma risk for three generations
  149. First evidence that soot from polluted air is reaching placenta
  150. Link between vitamin E, exposure to air pollution
  151. Air Pollution and Symptoms of Depression in Elderly Adults
  152. Cardiovascular Triggers Are in the Very Air We Breathe
  153. Scientists warn of links between soil pollution and heart disease
    Excerpt: “Pesticides and heavy metals in soil may have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system … Dirty soil may enter the body by inhaling desert dust …”
    Comment: Or any soil dust, including that blown by leaf blowers.
  154. Particulate air pollution: Exposure to ultrafine particles influences cardiac function
  155. Link between air pollution, heart disease confirmed: Higher levels of coarse particles in the air associated with increase in same-day cardiovascular hospitalizations in major urban areas
  156. Volkswagen's excess emissions will lead to 1,200 premature deaths in Europe
  157. 44,000 healthy years lost in Europe, 72,000 years could still be lost in the future
  158. Outdoor air pollution tied to millions of preterm births
  159. Yearly cost of US premature births linked to air pollution: $4.33 billion
  160. Even a little air pollution may have long-term health effects on developing fetus
  161. Even low levels of air pollution appear to affect a child's lungs
  162. Strong link between higher levels of pollution, lung health of European citizens
  163. Air pollution and impaired lung function prove independent risk factors for cognitive decline
  164. Prenatal exposure to combustion-related pollutants and anxiety, attention problems in young children
  165. Prenatal exposure to common air pollution linked to cognitive, behavioral impairment
  166. Air pollution affects young people's psychiatric health
  167. Prenatal exposure to air pollution linked to impulsivity, emotional problems in children
  168. Air pollution and psychological distress during pregnancy
  169. World's largest study shows effects of long-term exposure to air pollution and traffic noise on blood pressure
  170. Birds sing shorter songs in response to traffic noise
    Comment: And likely also leaf blower noise, which is even more annoying.
  171. High blood pressure linked to short-, long-term exposure to some air pollutants
  172. ADHD-air pollution link: Breathing dirty air during pregnancy raises odds of childhood ADHD-related behavior problems
  173. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure
  174. Air pollution below EPA standards linked with higher death rates
  175. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China
  176. Exposure-response relationship between traffic noise and the risk of stroke: a systematic review with meta-analysis
  177. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies
  178. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part II-mechanistic insights
  179. Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London
  180. Noise as a Health Hazard for Children, Time to Make a Noise about it
  181. The effect of noise on the health of children
  182. Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance
  183. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study
  184. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children's episodic memory: the RANCH project
  185. The effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on children's cognition and health: 3 field studies
  186. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014
  187. Health effects from noise
  188. Florida Woman Threatens to Shoot Man with Leaf Blower Because it Was Too Loud!
  189. Woman, mad about leaf blower, pulls out gun, threatens worker
  190. Neighbors' bitter leaf-blower battle ends with one shot dead, the other charged
  191. Clash over leaf blower leads to deadly shooting
  192. Microbes can redeem themselves to fight disease; Science News, Nov. 1, 2014, p. 19 (discussing how modified bacteria can be therapeutically used, but bacteria present in nature can, as quoted in the video, be harmful).
  193. Raccoon Latrines: Identification and Clean-up
  194. Photographs of Raccoon Poop
  195. Raccoon droppings pose danger
  196. Cleaning up raccoon droppings is deadly serious
  197. Undetected infection: Raccoon roundworm -- a hidden human parasite?
    Comment: Yes. The CDC found that 7% of people tested positive for raccoon roundworm antibodies. The roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) infects over 90% of raccoons in Santa Barbara (in adult raccoons, infection rates are typically as high as 70%; in juvenile raccoons, they can exceed 90%). Female worms can produce well over 100,000 eggs per day (up to 877,000), invisible to the naked eye but dangerous and resistant to disinfection with soap, alcohol, or bleach and are hardy, able to survive years in the environment. Up to 45,000,000 eggs can be shed daily by an infected raccoon. The infectious dose is relatively low, estimated to be <5,000 eggs. Eggs accidentally consumed can hatch. Roundworms stay in the gut in raccoons; others aren't so lucky: they can migrate through the body, potentially producing blindness, severe brain damage, or even death (as happened to a Santa Barbara toddler). Dogs can be infected, then shed eggs in their feces. Raccoons are primarily nocturnal, so you may not realize they live in your area. One study found 30 raccoons per quarter acre.
  198. Raccoon roundworm eggs near homes and risk for larva migrans disease, California communities
    Comment: The authors said serious or fatal larva migrans disease in humans and animals is increasingly recognized to result from the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis, the eggs from which were found in 28 – 49% of properties surveyed.
  199. Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection
  200. Baylisascaris procyonis: An Emerging Helminthic Zoonosis
    Comment: Most doctors don't know about this disease, so many cases of it are overlooked, with the true cause never identified. However, even when Baylisascaris infection is suspected, diagnosing it is difficult.
  201. Raccoon Roundworm Encephalitis
  202. Backyard Raccoon Latrines and Risk for Baylisascaris procyonis Transmission to Humans
  203. Baylisascariasis--a new dangerous zoonosis
  204. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis: case report and field investigation
  205. A child with raccoon roundworm meningoencephalitis: A pathogen emerging in your own backyard?
  206. Spinal cord involvement in a child with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) meningoencephalitis
  207. Parasite-carrying Raccoons Found To Be Culprits In Spread Of Lethal Disease
  208. Raccoons deal death
  209. Baylisascaris Procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) from Duval County, Texas
  210. Parasite prevalence and the worldwide distribution of cognitive ability
  211. Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South
  212. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polyparasitism associated with poor cognitive performance in Brazilian schoolchildren
  213. Evidence for an association between hookworm infection and cognitive function in Indonesian school children
  214. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (ascariasis, hookworm infection, and whipworm infection)
  215. Gut microbiota disturbance during helminth infection: can it affect cognition and behaviour of children?
  216. "Stupidity or worms": do intestinal worms impair mental performance?
  217. Helminthiasis Presenting as Microcytic Anemia
  218. Toxocariasis in North America: A Systematic Review
  219. Childhood parasitic infections endemic to the United States
  220. Reduced cognitive function in children with toxocariasis in a nationally representative sample of the United States
  221. Toxocariasis and lung function: relevance of a neglected infection in an urban landscape
  222. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population
  223. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children
  224. Parasitic zoonoses: one health surveillance in northern Saskatchewan
  225. Ocular toxocariasis--United States, 2009-2010
  226. Toxocariasis: America's Most Common Neglected Infection of Poverty and a Helminthiasis of Global Importance?
  227. Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung, and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma
  228. A public health response against Strongyloides stercoralis: time to look at soil-transmitted helminthiasis in full
  229. Cadmium and Phosphorous Fertilizers: The Issues and the Science
  230. Cadmium And Cadmium Compounds: Toxicology
  231. Cadmium poisoning
  232. Cadmium Levels in Soils and Crops in the United States
  233. Cadmium in Soils and Plants
  234. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults
  235. Exposure To Cadmium: A Major Public Health Concern
  236. Cadmium and Phosphorous Fertilizers: The Issues and the Science
  237. Possible Relationship between Chronic Telogen Effluvium and Changes in Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Iron Total Blood Levels in Females: A Case-Control Study
  238. Raynaud syndrome
  239. Vibration white finger
  240. Inflammation-Aging Link Confirmed
  241. Inflammation in Aging and Age-related Diseases
  242. Inflammation in aging processes: an integrative and ecological perspective
  243. Exposure to particulate air pollutants associated with numerous cancers
  244. Exposure to Air Pollution May Shorten Survival in Liver Cancer Patients
  245. Carcinogenic soot particles from petrol engines
  246. Common class of chemicals cause cancer by breaking down DNA repair mechanisms
    Comment: The chemicals, aldehydes, are present in engine exhaust and smoke.
  247. How inflammation can lead to cancer
  248. Cancer and Inflammation
  249. Review article: Inflammation and cancer
  250. Air pollution and skin diseases: Adverse effects of airborne particulate matter on various skin diseases
  251. Traffic-related air pollution linked to facial dark spots
    Comment: Small engines (such as those powering leaf blowers, lawn vacuums, and mowers) emit significantly more pollution than automobiles, which are heavily regulated and possess several pollution-control devices.
  252. Slow the signs of aging with sun protection
    Comment: The article also mentions that uneven skin tone can result from pollution.
  253. How bad for the environment are gas-powered leaf blowers?
  254. Emissions Test: Car vs. Truck vs. Leaf Blower
    Comment: Despite having only ≈ 1% or less of the power of the 411-horsepower, 6,200-pound 2011 Ford F-150 SVT Raptor Crew Cab, the four-stroke Ryobi leaf blower emitted enormously more NOx, CO, and NMHC; the two-stroke leaf blower was even worse, generating more hydrocarbon emissions per season of typical use than the truck would in 20,000 – 300,000 miles (depending on yard size and leaf density).
  255. Leaf Blower's Emissions Dirtier than High-Performance Pick-Up Truck's, Says Edmunds'
  256. More Pollution Than Cars? Gas-Powered Gardening Equipment Poses the Next Air Quality Threat
  257. One Hour Of Grass Cutting Equals 100 Miles Worth Of Auto Pollution
  258. October 11, 2021: Gasoline-powered lawn mowers, leaf blowers to be banned under new California law: Law targets small engines, which can pollute more than passenger vehicles.
    Excerpt: “Operating a gasoline-powered leaf blower for one hour produces as much volatile organic compounds and NOx as driving a 2017 Toyota Camry from New York City to Orlando, Florida, state officials say. … as recently as last year, small engines produced more NOx [nitrogen oxides] and VOC [volatile organic compound] pollution in California than passenger vehicles.”
  259. Rush hour pollution may be more dangerous than you think
  260. Sitting in traffic jams is officially bad for you
    Comment: Operating gasoline-powered leaf blowers, lawn vacuums, and mowers is much worse because they emit more pollutants, which essentially pool around the user.
  261. Stopping at red lights exposes drivers to high levels of air pollution
  262. New study shows smoking can affect breastfeeding habits: Exposure to household smoke shortens duration
  263. Road traffic pollution as serious as passive smoke in the development of childhood asthma
  264. Asthma symptoms kicking up? Check your exposure to air pollution
  265. Bad air quality along utah's wasatch front causes more than 200 pneumonia cases each year
  266. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke
  267. Genotoxicity of environmental tobacco smoke: a review
  268. Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke condensate: a review
  269. Genotoxic risk of passive smoking
  270. Exposure to smoking before and after birth linked to hearing impairment in toddlers
  271. Is the Air You Breathe Your Skin's Biggest Enemy? Age is in the air: Pollution is waging a war on your complexion
  272. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair
  273. The impact of oxidative stress on hair
  274. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage
  275. Oxidative stress--a key emerging impact factor in health, ageing, lifestyle and aesthetics
  276. Association between smoking and hair loss: another opportunity for health education against smoking?
  277. Air pollution and the skin
  278. Environmental influences on skin aging and ethnic-specific manifestations
  279. Environmental pollution and skin aging
  280. The Dirty Truth About Pollution-induced Skin Aging: The AhR Pathway Tells All
  281. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging
  282. Particulate Matter and Skin
  283. Association between smoking, passive smoking, and erectile dysfunction: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey
  284. Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Erectile Function and Its Potential Mechanism in Rats
  285. How air pollution affects your health – infographic: Exposure to air pollutants has been linked to suppressed lung growth, asthma, heart disease, fetal brain growth damage and the onset of diabetes
  286. Every breath we take: the lifelong impact of air pollution
  287. How to save ourselves from the invisible gas choking us to death
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Millions of Europeans die per decade from air pollution with most resulting despite their air supposedly being safe.
    • Strong evidence now indicates that NO2 [nitrogen dioxide] is itself harmful.
    • Air pollution likely heightens the risk of autism, dementia, diabetes, and other problems.
    • Researchers found myriad small iron particles in brains, likely from engine exhaust.
  288. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation — Clinical syndromes and neuroimaging
    Comment: Iron can generate reactive oxygen species that are neurotoxic.
  289. Brain iron deposits are associated with general cognitive ability and cognitive aging
  290. Biogenic Magnetite in Humans and New Magnetic Resonance Hazard Questions
  291. Nanoscale biogenic iron oxides and neurodegenerative disease
  292. Nanoparticles can travel from lungs to blood, possibly explaining risks to heart
  293. Detecting nanoplastics in the air
    Comment: Microplastics and nanoplastics settle onto the ground and accumulate on it via various processes, such as from rain and morning dew trapping tiny airborne plastic particles. However, once there, they don't always stay there but instead can be resuspended in air from various activities, such as mowing lawns and especially using leaf blowers. More plastics in the air = more plastics in your lungs and body.
  294. Air pollution linked to cognitive decline in women
  295. Exposure to high pollution levels during pregnancy may increase risk of having child with autism
  296. Fine particulate air pollution linked with increased autism risk
  297. Researcher adds to evidence linking autism to air pollutants
  298. Autism risk for developing children exposed to air pollution: Infant brain may be affected by air quality
  299. Hair Heavy Metal and Essential Trace Element Concentration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
  300. ASD Linked to Prenatal Metal Exposure According to Baby Teeth Findings based on Fetal and postnatal metal dysregulation in autism
    Comment: ASD = Autism Spectrum Disorder
  301. Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review
  302. Association between air toxics, childhood autism
  303. New evidence links air pollution to autism, schizophrenia
  304. One in 20 cases of pre-eclampsia may be linked to air pollutant
  305. Air pollution can alter the effectiveness of antibiotics and increases the potential of disease, new study reveals
    Comment: Researchers discovered air pollution directly affects bacteria that cause respiratory infections and their response to antibiotics.
  306. Air pollution is sending tiny magnetic particles into your brain
  307. Long-term exposure to traffic-related particulate matter impairs cognitive function in the elderly
  308. Long-term exposure to air pollution may pose risk to brain structure, cognitive functions
  309. Particulate Matter in Polluted Air May Increase Biomarkers of Inflammation in Mouse Brain
  310. Childhood inflammation raises risk of later bipolar symptoms
  311. Inhaled ultrafine particulate matter affects CNS inflammatory processes and may act via MAP kinase signaling pathways
  312. Composition and sources of fine particulate matter across urban and rural sites in the Midwestern United States
  313. Air pollution may lead to dementia in older women: Tiny, dirty airborne particles called PM2.5 invade the brain and wreak havoc, study suggests
  314. Dementia risk linked to air pollution
    Comment: Strong evidence that dementia is associated with air pollution.
  315. Heavy metal: Some airborne particles pose more dangers than others
  316. Heavy metals: Environmental heavy metals
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Use of leaded gasoline in North America largely ceased by 1996 but soil adjacent to roads built before then is still contaminated with lead.
    • Researchers found a significant correlation between use of leaded gasoline and violent crime.
    Considering the latter: because major cities had a higher density of leaded gasoline use, it isn't surprising that their violent crime rates were higher.
  317. Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilizers
  318. Minnesota Department of Health/Agriculture: Heavy Metals in Fertilizers
  319. Metal Dusts, Fumes and Mists
  320. Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards
  321. Tire Dust
  322. What are the Effects of Dust on the Lungs?
  323. Ancient enzyme protects lungs from common irritant produced by bugs and mold
    Comment: Chitin is a component of organisms such as fungi (yeasts, molds, mushrooms), nematodes, protozoa, arthropods (insects, arachnids [spiders, dust mites], myriapods [millipedes, centipedes]), and Lissamphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders, newts), many of which can be inhaled when decaying debris from their dead bodies is stirred up by leaf blowers and lawn vacuums. In humans, chitin triggers an immune response that may become an allergy. Animals deficient in chitinases (enzymes that break down chitin) may develop severe inflammatory lung disease producing fibrosis. Some plants (such as bananas, avocados, tomatoes, kiwis, papaya, and chestnuts) use chitinase to defend against fungal and invertebrate attack whereas other organisms use chitinases for other purposes, such as digestion or structural remodeling. Chitinases have hevein-like protein domains that may trigger allergic cross-reactivity between latex and various plants.
  324. Sand in public playgrounds may play a role in transmitting infections
    Comment: Dirt isn't just dirty; it is also germy—and leaf blowers spread it like wildfire.
  325. Public Health Statement for Aluminum
  326. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental toxicity
  327. Manganese Exposure and Cognition Across the Lifespan: Contemporary Review and Argument for Biphasic Dose–Response Health Effects
  328. Neurofunctional dopaminergic impairment in elderly after lifetime exposure to manganese
  329. Neurotoxicity of inhaled manganese: public health danger in the shower?
  330. Manganese neurotoxicity: behavioral, pathological, and biochemical effects following various routes of exposure
  331. Manganese-induced neurotoxicity: a review of its behavioral consequences and neuroprotective strategies
  332. Does environmental exposure to manganese pose a health risk to healthy adults?
  333. Higher manganese levels in children correlate with lower IQ scores, UC study finds
  334. Manganese and the brain
  335. Manganese neurotoxicity: new perspectives from behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropathological studies in humans and non-human primates
  336. Developmental exposure to manganese induces lasting motor and cognitive impairment in rats
  337. Manganese: Role in neurological disorders
  338. Map illustrating how the manganese (Mn) content of soil varies greatly in the United States
  339. Even better map that's interactive and displays concentrations of many elements and minerals from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils in the conterminous [lower 48] US
  340. Manganese exposure: cognitive, motor and behavioral effects on children: a review of recent findings
  341. Manganese exposure and cognitive deficits: a growing concern for manganese neurotoxicity
  342. Safety concerns over tungsten
  343. Electric Leaf Blowers Recalled after Injuries
  344. Science provides a new way to measure blower performance [ANSI B175.2 measuring blowing force]
  345. Map of soil arsenic distribution (United States)
  346. Map of arsenic in water (United States)
  347. Map of soil lead distribution (United States)
  348. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure
  349. Road Dust Lead (Pb) in Two Neighborhoods of Urban Atlanta, (GA, USA)
    Comment: A major potential source of lead exposure in urban children continues to be road dust.
  350. Lead (Pb) legacy from vehicle traffic in eight California urbanized areas: continuing influence of lead dust on children's health
  351. Estimation of leaded (Pb) gasoline's continuing material and health impacts on 90 US urbanized areas
  352. The continuing impact of lead dust on children's blood lead: comparison of public and private properties in New Orleans
  353. Urban soil-lead (Pb) footprint: retrospective comparison of public and private properties in New Orleans
  354. The urban rise and fall of air lead (Pb) and the latent surge and retreat of societal violence
  355. Spatial distribution of lead in Sacramento, California, USA
  356. New Orleans soil lead (Pb) cleanup using Mississippi River alluvium: need, feasibility, and cost
  357. Altered myelination and axonal integrity in adults with childhood lead exposure: a diffusion tensor imaging study
  358. Early-life metal exposure and schizophrenia: A proof-of-concept study using novel tooth-matrix biomarkers
  359. Environmental exposures to lead and urban children's blood lead levels
  360. Potential for childhood lead poisoning in the inner cities of Australia due to exposure to lead in soil dust
  361. Thousands of U.S. Areas Afflicted with Lead Poisoning beyond Flint's: The Michigan city doesn't even rank among the most dangerous lead hotspots in America
  362. The elephant in the playground: confronting lead-contaminated soils as an important source of lead burdens to urban populations
  363. Low-level lead exposure and children's intelligence from recent epidemiological studies in the U.S.A. and other countries to progress in reducing lead exposure and screening in the U.S.A.
  364. Lifetime exposure to environmental lead and children's intelligence at 11-13 years: the Port Pirie cohort study
    Comment: Lead exposure before age 8 is associated with persistent cognitive deficits.
  365. Exposure to environmental lead and visual-motor integration at age 7 years: the Port Pirie Cohort Study
  366. Environmental lead exposure and children's cognitive function
  367. Neurobehavioral aspects of lead neurotoxicity in children
  368. Association between soil heavy metals and fatty liver disease in men in Taiwan: a cross sectional study
  369. The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review
  370. Metals and Neurodegeneration
  371. Effect of Lead (Pb) on Inflammatory Processes in the Brain
  372. Wind speed map (United States)
    Comment: Wind helps spread soil contaminants once launched into the air by leaf blowers or vacuums.
  373. The surprising reason abandoned US mines haven’t been cleaned up
    Comment: Discusses how wind blows arsenic-contaminated dust from abandoned mines onto yards.
  374. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring
  375. Rainfall can release aerosols, study finds
  376. Light rain can spread soil bacteria far and wide, study finds
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Researchers found that raindrops produce a spray of mist (aerosols), each laden with up to several thousand soil bacteria.
    • Wind can further spread airborne bacteria, enabling them to travel considerable distances, eventually settling to colonize distant areas.
    Leaf blower air velocity can exceed 200 mph, so they have markedly more potential to create mists from blowing leaves wetted by rain or dew. To illustrate this, we put blue food dye on grass that was blown by a leaf blower, which sprayed mist onto downstream paper (see below). In addition to the distinct spots, note the diffuse bluish haze especially concentrated near the upper center; that resulted from an aerosolized mist of countless tiny droplets—ones ideally suited for long-distance spread. The direct blast can travel many feet, but once airborne, wind can carry it hundreds or thousands of feet.
    mist (blue food dye) blown by leaf blower
    Leaf blower mist on paper ≈ 17 x 44 inches
    closeup of leaf blower mist
    Closeup of leaf blower mist; green square ≈ 1 in2
  377. Dew drops spontaneously flinging themselves into the wind may spread wheat infections
    Comment: However they get into the air (by flinging themselves or via leaf blowers), drops can spread numerous infections, affecting both plants and animals.
  378. Fungal community on decomposing leaf litter undergoes rapid successional changes
  379. Cryptococcus
    Comment: Cryptococcus neoformans is the most medically important species of Cryptococcus. Wild birds, such as pigeons, can spread it via their droppings, which dry and can subsequently be stirred up, infecting humans or pets that inhale the dust. Leaf blowers aren't great at moving leaves, but they are exceptionally effective in stirring up dust of all sorts: from dirt (as toxic as it can be, as documented elsewhere in this page) to everything deposited on lawns, including bird droppings.
  380. Cryptococcus gattii
    Comment: Spores from this potentially lethal fungus are easily aerosolized by disturbing soil. It can cause disease (cryptococcosis) in people with normal immune systems (non-immunocompromised).
  381. CDC: Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii--- Pacific Northwest, 2004--2010
    Excerpt: “C. gattii is an emerging infection in the United States. C. gattii appears to differ from its sibling species, C. neoformans, both in its clinical aspects (e.g., less responsive to antifungal drugs and more likely to cause tumor-like lesions called cryptococcomas) and its ecologic niche … In addition, whereas the primary risk factor for C. neoformans cryptococcosis is severe immunosuppression (e.g., from HIV infection), risk factors for C. gattii infection in the United States appear to include both immunocompromise and exposure to specific regions of environmental fungal colonization … Many cases of C. gattii infection are likely not recognized because distinguishing between C. gattii and C. neoformans requires plating on differential media not routinely available in clinical microbiology laboratories; therefore, many cryptococcal infections are never speciated. … Fungal spores are known to colonize the nasal cavity and spread to other body sites, causing meningitis, pneumonia, and the development of lung, brain, or muscle cryptococcomas …”
  382. Cryptococcus gattii Dispersal Mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada
  383. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from Oregon soil and tree bark, 2010–2011
  384. Isolation Of Cryptococcus Neoformans From Soil
  385. First global atlas of the bacteria living in your dirt: Researchers have compiled a 'most wanted' list of around 500 key bacterial species that are both common and abundant worldwide
  386. Killer fungi: The health threat that's creeping up on us: They kill more people than malaria, and the death toll is set to rise. But we are only just starting to understand the devious ways fungi can infect us
    Comment: Cryptococcus usually grows on rotting plant material in soil.
  387. November 16, 2022: Lung infections caused by soil fungi are a problem nationwide: Outdated maps of disease-causing fungi may lead to delayed, missed diagnoses
    Comment: Leaf blowers inevitably blow dirt into the air along with everything — including pathogens — that is in dirt. Take a deep breath and ponder that.
  388. November 21, 2022: A Soil Fungus That Causes Lung Infections Is Spreading Across the U.S.: A study suggests histoplasma is now found in nearly every state, but many doctors aren't looking out for it.
    Based on: The Geographic Distribution of Dimorphic Mycoses in the United States for the Modern Era
    Comment: The modern era includes leaf blowers that helps germs do their dirty work.
  389. January 10, 2023: 4 key things to know about lung infections caused by fungi: News that three kinds of fungi are more widespread than thought prompted reader questions
    Excerpt: “Human activities that disturb the soil where these fungi typically live — such as farming, gardening, construction, road work or archaeology — can also stir up dust and spores.”
    Comment: Or using a leaf blower.
  390. November 21, 2022: Physicians urged to consider fungal infections as possible cause for lung inflammation: Climate change widens spread of Valley fever, other fungal diseases beyond typical hot spots
  391. Characterization of pollen allergens
  392. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis from a contaminated dump site
    Comment: A municipal leaf compost site liberated Aspergillus fumigatus spores that caused allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in a local patient.
  393. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    Comment: Aspergillus spores are common in soil.
  394. Evaluation of the cause of nasal and ocular symptoms associated with lawn mowing
    Comment: Leaf blowers and lawn vacuums stir up even more allergens than lawn mowers.
  395. Allergenic exposure, IgE-mediated sensitization, and related symptoms in lawn cutters
  396. Outdoor allergens
  397. Mold Allergy
  398. Leaf mold
  399. 10 Ways to Reduce Mold Allergies
  400. Four Things You Might Not Know About Fall Allergies
  401. Exposure-response relationships for work-related sensitization in workers exposed to rat urinary allergens: results from a pooled study
    Comment: Animals urinate, defecate, vomit, bleed, die, and decay in nature. Leaf blowers and lawn vacuums strongly stir up these materials not only from their primary sites but also secondary ones after they are spread via a variety of processes.
  402. Isolation of Trichosporon asahii from environmental materials
    Comment: Trichosporon occur naturally in soil.
  403. Trichosporon Infections
  404. The opportunistic yeast pathogen Trichosporon asahii colonizes the skin of healthy individuals: analysis of 380 healthy individuals by age and gender using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay
  405. Trichosporon asahii, a Non-Candida Yeast That Caused Fatal Septic Shock in a Patient without Cancer or Neutropenia
  406. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns
    Comment: An overview of several natural health hazards, including:
    • volcanic ash + aerosols + gases
    • mineral dusts
    • non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles
    • asbestos + fibrous zeolites
    • arsenic
    • fluorine
    • iodine
    • uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium
    • selenium
    • mercury
    • copper
    • lead
    • chromium
    • cadmium
  407. Comprehensive Study finds Widespread Mercury Contamination Across Western North America
  408. Map #1 of volcanic ash distribution (United States)
    Map #2 of volcanic ash distribution (United States; Mount St. Helens)
    Map #3 of volcanic ash distribution (United States; 1936 Yellowstone Eruption)
    Map #4 of volcanic ash distribution (world)
    Comment: Once airborne, wind blows volcanic ash for surprising distances (“thousands of kilometers”), so it can be found far from volcanic eruptions.
  409. Kamchatkan volcanic ash travels half the world
  410. Sahara dust may make you cough, but it's a storm killer
    Comment: Dust from the Sahara Desert in Africa was blown to the Southern United States, including Texas; worldwide total: 2 to 9 trillion pounds.
  411. Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
    Comment: Since dust can travel from one continent to another, dust stirred up by leaf blowers and lawn vacuums can easily spread onto neighbors' property and faraway places.
  412. Asian dust and acute myocardial infarction: Prediction and prevention
    Comment: Acute myocardial infarctions (colloquially, “heart attacks”) spike when Asian dust clouds blow in.
  413. Bacteria may travel thousands of miles through the air globally: Study could shed light on harmful bacteria that share antibiotic resistance genes
  414. Volcanic ash
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Airborne ash particles smaller than 10 µm diameter are inhalable.
    • Inhaling ash produces respiratory problems along with nose, throat, eye, and skin irritation.
    • Long-term exposure likely triggers health problems because free crystalline silica has been proven to cause silicosis.
  415. The Health Hazards Of Volcanic Ash: A guide for the public
  416. Volcanic Ash -- Effects on Health and Mitigation Strategies
  417. Volcanic Ash: More Than Just A Science Project: Hazards Of Volcanic Ash
  418. Health Canada: Potential Health Effects Of Volcanic Ash
  419. The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation
  420. Case study by Dr. Shafiq Qaadri: Volcanic ash can severely damage your lungs
  421. The health hazards of volcanoes and geothermal areas
  422. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002
  423. Long-term health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a prospective cohort study in 2010 and 2013
  424. Volcanic ash in the air we breathe
  425. Viruses -- lots of them -- are falling from the sky: An astonishing number of viruses are circulating around the Earth's atmosphere -- and falling from it
  426. Researchers raise health concerns about off-road vehicles and inhalation of asbestos
    Comment: Leaf blowers can generate vastly more dust than off-road vehicles.
  427. The dust storm microbiome
    Comment: Bacteria cling to particles of airborne dust, traveling many miles during storms.
  428. Soil pollution: Xenobiotic chemicals
  429. CDC: Anthrax
    Excerpt: “People get infected with anthrax when spores get into the body. … This can happen when people breathe in spores, eat food or drink water that is contaminated with spores, or get spores in a cut or scrape in the skin. It is very uncommon for people in the United States to get infected with anthrax.”
    Comment: But it happens, and if it happens to you, its rarity is no consolation.
  430. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States
    Excerpt: “Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.”
  431. Anthrax in the United States: Respiratory, Inhalational, or Pulmonary Anthrax: “is contracted by breathing in the anthrax spores. It has similar symptoms to the cold and flu for the first few days—a sore throat, muscle aches, and fever are often common. However, the disease then deviates, resulting in acute breathing difficulty and shock, which is often fatal. Untreated cases have a 100% mortality rate.”
  432. Modeling the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis, the Causative Agent of Anthrax Disease, for the Contiguous United States using Predictive Ecologic Niche Modeling
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Anthrax is a zoonotic disease still affecting many countries, including the USA for wildlife species and herbivorous livestock, and secondarily people.
    • The soil-borne bacteria B. anthracis [the causative agent of anthrax] is ubiquitous.
    That article includes the predicted distribution of Bacillus anthracis in the 48 contiguous United States.
  433. Unearthing Anthrax's Dirty Secret: Its Mysterious Survival Skills May Rely on Help from Viruses--and Earthworms: Researchers find that viruses infecting anthrax and other Bacillus bacteria control its growth both in the soil and in earthworms--and uncover possible new reservoirs for the age-old scourge
    Comment: According to the article, up to 75% of those inhaling anthrax spores (and 60% of those ingesting them) can die from it.
  434. Anthrax can grow and reproduce in soil, researchers find
  435. United States EPA: Learn About Asbestos
    Comment: Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral fiber in some soil and rock.
  436. Asbestos in Soil
  437. Asbestos: understanding and managing asbestos risks in soil
    Comment: Asbestos is also frequently found in made ground.
  438. Asbestos in Soil
    Comment: Soil can naturally contain asbestos.
  439. Asbestos map of the United States (article)
  440. Landscapes Tainted by Asbestos
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Naturally occurring asbestos has been found in locations throughout the United States.
    • Minerals physically similar to asbestos, such as erionite, can also form needlelike structures that heighten the risk of mesothelioma.
    • Some California residential developments were built on soil containing asbestos; such fibers were found blowing around those communities.
    • Human harm resulted from considerably smaller amounts of asbestos than were previously assumed to be dangerous.
  441. CDC: Erionite: An Emerging North American Hazard
    Excerpt: “Disturbance of this material can generate airborne fibers with physical properties and health effects similar to asbestos.”
  442. CDC: Erionite map (Western United States)
  443. Erionite and its Health Effects
    Comment: The fibrous zeolite mineral erionite is a highly toxic human carcinogen (causing mesothelioma) widely distributed throughout the world.
  444. Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Potential for Human Exposure, Southern Nevada, USA
    Comment: Disease can result from many natural fibrous minerals besides asbestos. These include:
    amphibole minerals
    antigorite (a serpentine mineral)
  445. Come rain or shine, viruses live on in soil
  446. CWD prions discovered in Wisconsin soils for the first time
    Comment: CWD = chronic wasting disease, a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (another is bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a.k.a., mad cow's disease). The big question is: can CWD infect humans? The CDC said, “Scientists believe CWD proteins (prions) likely spread between animals through body fluids like feces, saliva, blood, or urine, either through direct contact or indirectly through environmental contamination of soil, food or water. … Experts believe CWD prions can remain in the environment for a long time, so other animals can contract CWD from the environment even after an infected deer or elk has died. … To date, there is no strong evidence for the occurrence of CWD in people, and it is not known if people can get infected with CWD prions. Nevertheless, these experimental studies raise the concern that CWD may pose a risk to people and suggest that it is important to prevent human exposures to CWD.”
  447. Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?
    Comment: Because they are migratory, American crows can potentially spread infectious prions (including those associated with CWD) in their feces to distant disease-free areas.
  448. Modern Pestilence: Leaf Blowers Generate Infuriating Noise, Toxic Gases and Hazardous Dust
  449. The Devil's Hair Dryer: Hell is other people, with leaf blowers.
  450. The Leaf Blower: A lazy person's lawn manicure
  451. Ban Leafblowers!
  452. Do noisy leaf blowers drive you mad?
  453. First in the Nation: The MSSNY's Gas Leaf Blower Resolution
    Comment: MSSNY = Medical Society of the State of New York.
  454. Massachusetts Medical Society's Resolution Against Gas Leaf Blowers
  455. Leaf Blowers- A Quality of Life And Public Health Issue
  456. Noise isn't just a city problem — Leaf blowers are a major issue for towns
  457. Author James Fallows (of The Atlantic fame) is likely America's most vocal opponent of leaf blowers. He has bashed them for years, and even mused about “whether plastic explosives, or a ball-peen hammer, would be a better option for destroying my neighbors' leafblowers.” Some of his articles include:
  458. A prominent writer and Washington insider is launching a war. On leaf blowers.

  459. Toxoplasma references

  460. June 13, 2022: Cats that are allowed to roam can spread diseases to humans and wildlife
  461. Systems analysis points to links between Toxoplasma infection and common brain diseases based on Toxoplasma Modulates Signature Pathways of Human Epilepsy, Neurodegeneration & Cancer
  462. Prenatal Infection and Schizophrenia: A Review of Epidemiologic and Translational Studies
    Comment: The authors reported that Toxoplasma gondii more than doubled the risk of schizophrenia in individuals exposed in utero (in the womb).
  463. Relationship Between Toxoplasma gondii and Mood Disturbance in Women Veterans
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and suicidal behavior.
  464. Common parasite may trigger suicide attempts: Inflammation from T. gondii produces brain-damaging metabolites
  465. Women infected with common parasite have increased risk of attempting suicide, study finds
  466. Toxoplasma gondii antibody titers and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia
  467. Toxoplasma gondii and Schizophrenia
  468. Scientists Find Stronger Evidence For Link Between Cat Faeces And Schizophrenia
  469. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody in patients with schizophrenia
  470. Toxoplasma gondii infection in first-episode and inpatient individuals with schizophrenia
  471. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis
  472. A controlled prospective study of toxoplasma gondii infection in individuals with schizophrenia: beyond seroprevalence
  473. Early Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and the Later Development of Schizophrenia
  474. Psychosis may be associated with toxoplasmosis
  475. Evidence of increased exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in individuals with recent onset psychosis but not with established schizophrenia
  476. Maternal antibodies to infectious agents and risk for non-affective psychoses in the offspring--a matched case-control study
  477. Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Herpesvidae family viruses in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a case-control study
  478. Is there any role of Toxoplasma gondii in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
  479. Toxoplasmosis: How a cat parasite exploits immune cells to reach the brain
  480. Epidemic toxoplasmosis associated with infected cats
  481. Acquired toxoplasmosis
    Comment: Disease resulted from infected cats fecally shedding toxoplasma oocysts with transmission presumably resulting from oocyst aerosolization or hand-to-mouth contact.
  482. During a hurricane, where does all the pig poop go? Into your water.: The horrifying pig poop floods in North Carolina are not a one-time thing.
    Comment: And onto the ground, and into the air (thanks to leaf blowers), hence into your eyes, nose, and lungs.
  483. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries
  484. Follow-up of the 1977 Georgia Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis
    Comment: The toxoplasmosis outbreak most likely stemmed from inhalation or ingestion of cat feces stirred up by horses. Leaf blowers can create substantially more airborne dust.
  485. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health
    Comment: Toxoplasma oocysts in soil or water, or on uncooked vegetables, is an important source of human infection.
  486. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention
    Comment: Soil and water are the usual sources of human toxoplasma infection.
  487. Toxoplasmosis. Are cats really the source?
    Comment: Human toxoplasma infections are less likely to result from direct contact with pet cats than from fecally contaminated soil spreading oocysts to hands.
  488. Spatial distribution of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soil in a rural area: Influence of cats and land use and Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas
    Comment: Oocyst-contaminated soil is increasingly acknowledged to be a primary source of human infection.
  489. Association between seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii, scholastic development of children and risk factors for T. gondii infection
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Toxoplasma oocysts are usually acquired from soil.
    • Infected men are more distrustful, aggressive, and apt to break rules; infected women more likely to feel a need to abide by them yet are paradoxically uninhibited.
    • When infected, both sexes exhibit slowed reaction time and more difficulty maintaining concentration.
    Infected children scored less well on the Scholastic Performance Test with math giving them the most difficulty. Hence avoiding leaf blowers and lawn vacuums is occupationally relevant for those seeking careers demanding brainpower.
    • Most lawn and exposed soil samples were contaminated.

    Previously, T. gondii infection was thought to generally endanger pregnant women and people with impaired immunity, such as diabetics or those with HIV; infections in others was thought to be typically asymptomatic—that is, without symptoms.
  490. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection and Depression: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study
    Comment: Researchers found a potential link between toxoplasma infection and depression.
  491. Correlation of duration of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection with personality changes in women
    Comment: In men, reduced superego [conscience] strength is correlated with the duration of toxoplasma infection.
  492. Changes in the personality profile of young women with latent toxoplasmosis
  493. Induction of changes in human behaviour by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    Toxoplasma gondii changes behavior.
    • 20 – 80% of people are infected by this parasite.
    • Those infected exhibit highly significant differences as compared with uninfected people.

    Reduced superego strength increases the risk of sociopathic behavior, including criminality.
  494. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico
  495. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric inpatients in a northern Mexican city
    Comment: Those infected with Toxoplasma gondii had a significantly higher risk of being a psychiatric inpatient, especially one with schizophrenia.
  496. Toxoplasma gondii Infection: Relationship With Aggression in Psychiatric Subjects
  497. People with rage disorder twice as likely to have latent toxoplasmosis parasite infection: New study identifies link between Intermittent Explosive Disorder and exposure to the common toxoplasma gondii parasite typically found in undercooked meat, cat feces
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii is also commonly present in soil.
  498. Toxoplasma gondii: a potential role in the genesis of psychiatric disorders
  499. "Latent" infection with Toxoplasma gondii: association with trait aggression and impulsivity in healthy adults
  500. The diagnosis of a personality disorder increases the likelihood for seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in psychiatric patients
  501. Influence of chronic toxoplasmosis on some human personality factors
  502. Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii Dopamine, a missing link between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis?
    Comment: They reported that 30 – 60% of people worldwide are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, with infected individuals showing poorer psychomotor performance and personality changes, including:
    • Less novelty seeking.
    • Lower IQs.
    • Less likely to achieve higher education.
  503. Decreased level of novelty seeking in blood donors infected with Toxoplasma
  504. Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection produced premenstrual syndrome symptoms.
  505. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection was associated with feeling out of control or overwhelmed.
  506. Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause
  507. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection was associated with behavioral changes including mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.
  508. Beyond the association. Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection was associated with several psychiatric disorders.
  509. Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    Toxoplasma gondii infection can alter human personality and may increase the risk of schizophrenia and depression.
    • The Toxoplasma gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylases that could directly affect biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin.
  510. Toxoplasma gondii: host-parasite interaction and behavior manipulation
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy.
  511. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Comment: There is a high (more than one-third) seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in Iran.
  512. Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite medication on Toxoplasma gondii's ability to alter host behavior
  513. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats
  514. Impairment of learning and memory ability in mice with latent infection of Toxoplasma gondii
    Comment: In mice, latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii may cause learning and memory impairment.
  515. Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma-human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    Toxoplasma gondii infection was previously assumed to be asymptomatic but actually produces significant effects in humans, such as by increasing reaction time, which explains why infected people have a higher probability of traffic accidents.
    • Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is associated with immunosuppression, which may explain why mothers of children with Down syndrome have a very high prevalence of toxoplasmosis.
    • Male students infected with Toxoplasma gondii are approximately 3 cm taller and have faces perceived by women to be more masculine and dominant: effects that may be caused by increased testosterone.
    Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with the initiation of more severe schizophrenia.
    • Dozens of studies have demonstrated a link between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia.
  516. Toxoplasma and reaction time: role of toxoplasmosis in the origin, preservation and geographical distribution of Rh blood group polymorphism
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • The RHD gene encodes the RhD protein, which is the strongest Rh blood group immunogen in the Rh blood group system.
    • A significant minority of people are RhD-negative because they lack the RhD antigen.
    Heterozygous men (those with RhD plus and RhD minus alleles) were protected against reaction time prolongation associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection.
  517. Increased incidence of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma-infected military drivers and protective effect RhD molecule revealed by a large-scale prospective cohort study
    Comment: Toxoplasma gondii infection could strongly increase the risk of traffic accidents in RhD negative people. Reaction time is crucial for everyone but even more so for racecar drivers and professional athletes: for them, it is easy to see why reaction time can make the difference between living and dying, or a huge paycheck versus a more meager one. Hence anyone RhD negative with such career aspirations who yearns to be a star has another compelling reason to avoid using—or even being near—leaf blowers and lawn vacuums.
  518. Is Toxoplasma gondii a potential risk for traffic accidents in Turkey?
    Comment: More evidence linking toxoplasmosis with an increased risk for traffic accidents.
  519. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in drivers involved in road traffic accidents in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
  520. Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs
  521. Increased pregnancy weight gain in women with latent toxoplasmosis and RhD-positivity protection against this effect
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • RhD-positive people were protected against impaired psychomotor performance associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection.
    • RhD-negative mothers infected with Toxoplasma gondii gained more weight.

    Hence RhD-negative people are NOT protected against toxoplasmosis-associated problems. Approximately 15% of the U.S. population is RhD-negative.
  522. Rh blood group system
  523. The influence of RhD phenotype on toxoplasmosis- and age-associated changes in personality profile of blood donors
  524. Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group
    Comment: Rh-positive people are protected against certain behavioral effects associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii, such as slower reaction time and altered personality; Rh-negative individuals are not protected.
  525. Survey on the contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the soil of public parks of Wuhan, China
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • More evidence demonstrating the importance of soil in transmitting Toxoplasma gondii.
    • All parks sampled were contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii.
  526. Quantitative estimation of the viability of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soil
  527. Earthworms as paratenic hosts of toxoplasmosis in eastern barred bandicoots in Tasmania
    Comment: Earthworms can transmit Toxoplasma gondii.
  528. Toxoplasmosis and mental retardation--report of a case-control study
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • A greater risk of mental retardation was found in children of mothers exposed to soil and cats.
    Toxoplasma gondii infection quadrupled the risk of retinochoroiditis.
    Subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis seems to be an important factor in mental retardation.
  529. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in gravidas and recently aborted women and study of risk factors
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    • Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were higher in recent aborters from rural areas in which women are more commonly exposed to soil even if they don't have pet cats.
    • More evidence demonstrating the importance of soil in transmitting Toxoplasma gondii.
  530. Are There any Relationships between Latent Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Testosterone Elevation, and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
  531. How Your Cat Is Making You Crazy
  532. Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    Toxoplasma gondii manipulates human personality.
    • Most infected people initially experience only mild flu-like symptoms, but fetal infection can produce devastating effects.
    • After the initial infection, Toxoplasma parasites become largely dormant in tissues including the brain.
    • The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii exhibits substantial geographic variation that may explain behavioral differences in people from different areas.
    Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with increased neuroticism and proneness to guilt; infected women are more rule-conscious, conforming, and staid; infected men are less intelligent, more rigid, more emotionally reactive, more changeable, more affected by feelings, more easily upset, and less emotionally stable.
    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts live longer in low-altitude areas with higher humidity, especially those at mid-latitudes with infrequent freeze-thaw cycles.
    • People working with soil are more likely to ingest Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.
  533. Toxoplasma – the brain parasite that influences human culture
    Comment: The take-home messages:
    Toxoplasma gondii carriers are more likely to exhibit long-term personality changes. Effects differ in men and women but both are more neurotic.
    • Countries with a higher prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection more often have (1) more pronounced differences in gender roles with more focus on ambition, work, and money instead of people and relationships, (2) greater risk aversion, (3) a tendency to embrace strict regulations and rules.
  534. Effects of Toxoplasma on Human Behavior
  535. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the brain
  536. Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma-human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis
  537. Common Parasite Linked to Personality Changes
  538. Reexamining Chronic Toxoplasma gondii Infection: Surprising Activity for a “Dormant” Parasite
  539. Study identifies exposure to common food-borne pathogen linked to rare brain cancer
    Excerpt: “A new study suggests a link between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and the risk of glioma, a type of brain cancer, in adults.”

Leaf trivia

Leaf Magnet logo
© 2017 IdeaTeem, Inc. • Patent Pending • Contact
Make Leaf Magnets™ in your town

Life is short. Leaf blowers make it even shorter.℠ Here's why.